1895 - France

An Indirect Approach, in which he stated: "In strategy the longest way around is often the shortest way there. A direct approach to the objective exhausts the attacker and hardens the resistance by compression, where as an indirect approach loosens the defenders hold by upsetting his balance."

*security: Material and Tactical


(i) Surprise, striking the enemy from an unexpected direction, at an unexpected moment, in an unguarded spot. This may be achieved by making use of all covered approaches, working round his flanks by the use of ground and smoke, and by taking instant advantage of any opportunities for movement or assault provided by the action of tanks, artillery, and similar weapons.


(ii) Speed of movement, fire, and eye. Opportunities in battle are fleeting and must be instantly noticed and seized.


(iii) Momentum, the use of the" expanding torrent "system, which is dealt with later, to maintain the impulsion of the advance.


(iv) Soft Spot, seeking and striking the enemy's weakest spots instead of dashing one's head against his strongest points. This means taking him in rear or flank, and pushing in our reserves at the points where he is giving way.


(v) Husbanding our men by the aid of correct tactics and covered approaches, instead of massed frontal attacks in line.


(vi) Mutual support, whether of brigades or sections, all working together like the muscles of the body or the members of a football team, and covering each other's advance by fire.


(vii) Exploitation to the full of every advantage gained.