1939 - Kanada
The management theory of Henry Mintzberg basics are that management skills cannot be taught in a classroom, but can only be enhanced through authentic experiences - Emergent Strategies.
Mintzberg suggests that organizations can be differentiated along three basic dimensions:
(1) the key part of the organization, that is, the part of the organization that plays the major role in determining its success or failure;
(2) the prime coordinating mechanism, that is, the major method the organization uses to coordinate its activities; and
(3) the type of decentralization used, that is, the extent to which the organization involves subordinates in the decision-making process.
These roles defined in terms of managing: (managing by information), (managing through people), and (managing through action) are further broken down into organizational structure dominated by the following (5) styles:
• The simple structure. A young company before its entrepreneurial founder has had to let go of some of the strings. Such organisations are often autocratic and, as Mintzberg put it, vulnerable to a single heart attack.
• The machine bureaucracy. A company with many layers of management and a mass of formal procedures.
• The professional bureaucracy. An organisation that is cemented together by some sort of professional expertise, such as a hospital or a consultancy. This is usually the most democratic type of organisation, partly because it is often set up as a partnership.
• The divisionalised form. A structure where there is little central authority, but having clearly defined expectations. It is the form most frequently found among modern multinationals.
• The adhocracy. This type of organisation frequently found in the computer world, is full of flexible teams working on specific projects. It is also the structure found in Hollywood and, according to Mintzberg, is the structure of the future.
Furthermore management fall into ten roles:
"... a system which is composed of a set of subsystems..."
Composed of individuals and groups of individuals
Oriented towards achievement of common goals
Intended rational coordination
Continuity through time
Definition"... institutional arrangements and mechanisms for mobilizing human, physical, financial and information resources at all levels of the system..."
- STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY
Principles of Organizational Structure
Unity of command
Responsibility and authority principle
Span of control
- process or equipment
Grouping of staff
· Commodity or production area
Flow of authority
· Modified matrix