Under pressure to improve productivity, quality, and speed, managers have embraced tools such as TQM, benchmarking, and re-engineering but it is not enough to achieve long term results. These tools become over-used.
Managers who want to push frontiers need to think in terms of shifts and changed performance to create new competitive positions.
Strategy is about rethinking the level of the specific activities a company performs by changing how competencies or critical resources and employed and used.
Leadership is making clear decisions about what is to take place and helping to ensure activities are carried out as planned.